Difference between revisions of "List of keyboard shortcuts"

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==Special characters not on keyboards==
 
==Special characters not on keyboards==
 
All special characters can be typed using Option+key or Shift+Option+key.  In some cases (like accents) the ''following'' character is modified rather than typing a character immediately.
 
All special characters can be typed using Option+key or Shift+Option+key.  In some cases (like accents) the ''following'' character is modified rather than typing a character immediately.
 +
 +
In case you do find you need to use different special characters frequently, consider using the software [[PopChar]] (shareware, Pro/Light versions available). It provides a convenient menu to insert any character from the currently used font. It is also useful to memorise keyboard shortcuts. Alternatively, you can use Apple's [[Key Caps]] utility, found in all versions of [[Macintosh System Software|SSW]] since System 7.
 
{| width="100%"
 
{| width="100%"
 
|-
 
|-
Line 18: Line 20:
 
|⌥A
 
|⌥A
 
 
|a with ring
+
|lower case a with ring
 
|-
 
|-
 
|⇧⌥B
 
|⇧⌥B
 
 
|dotless i
+
|lower case dotless i
 
|-
 
|-
 
|⌥C
 
|⌥C
 
 
|c with cedilla
+
|lower case c with cedilla
 
|-
 
|-
 
|⌥E
 
|⌥E
Line 58: Line 60:
 
|⇧⌥K
 
|⇧⌥K
 
|
 
|
|Apple symbol (only supported in Apple fonts, may not display properly here)
+
|filled Apple symbol (only supported in Apple fonts, may not display properly here)
 
|-
 
|-
 
|⌥N
 
|⌥N
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|⌥O
 
|⌥O
 
 
|o with slash
+
|lower case o with slash
 
|-
 
|-
 
|⌥Q
 
|⌥Q
Line 102: Line 104:
 
|⇧⌥9
 
|⇧⌥9
 
 
|Mid dot
+
|middle dot
 
|-
 
|-
 
|⌥`
 
|⌥`
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|⌥-
 
|⌥-
 
|–
 
|–
|En dash
+
|en dash
 
|-
 
|-
 
|⇧⌥-
 
|⇧⌥-
 
|—
 
|—
|Em dash
+
|em dash
 
|-
 
|-
 
|⌥[
 
|⌥[
Line 136: Line 138:
 
|Close single quote, or apostrophe
 
|Close single quote, or apostrophe
 
|-
 
|-
|⌥:
+
|⌥.
 
|…
 
|…
 
|(That's Option-colon.) Ellipsis
 
|(That's Option-colon.) Ellipsis
Line 154: Line 156:
 
|⌥  
 
|⌥  
 
| 
 
| 
|(That's Option-space.) En space
+
|(That's Option-space.) no break space
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
==Commands in Finder==
 
==Commands in Finder==
 +
I case you miss some of the commands found in early versions of the Finder, consider using [[Finder Feature Enabler]]. This software reinstates some of the old Finder keyboard shortcuts.
 +
 
{| width="100%"
 
{| width="100%"
 
|-
 
|-
 
!Key Combination
 
!Key Combination
 
!Function
 
!Function
 +
!Introduced
 +
!Removed
 
!Notes
 
!Notes
 
|-
 
|-
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|⌘C
 
|⌘C
 
|'''C'''opy
 
|'''C'''opy
|As of Mac OS X, the '''Copy''' function behaves in the same way as its Microsoft Windows cousin: it saves a copy of the file(s) and/or folder(s) in RAM. Having said that, '''Copy''' still retains its old function and will copy the text of a file or folder if the file/folder's name is selected for editing.
+
|
 +
|
 +
|As of Mac OS X, ''Copy'' behaves in the same way as its Microsoft Windows cousin: it saves a copy of the file(s) and/or folder(s) in RAM. Having said that, copy still retains its old function and will copy the text of a file or folder if the file/folder's name is selected for editing.
 
|-
 
|-
 
|⌘D
 
|⌘D
 
|'''D'''uplicate
 
|'''D'''uplicate
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 
|-
 
|-
 
|⌘E
 
|⌘E
 
|'''E'''ject  
 
|'''E'''ject  
|In versions of [[Macintosh System Software|SSW]] prior to 8.0, the floppy disk's icon would remain on the Desktop despite having been ejected. This stems from the days when Macs didn't ship with hard disks, and the just-ejected floppy's directory structure was held in RAM to speed up the disk reading process if said floppy were re-inserted.
+
|
 +
|
 +
|In versions of [[Macintosh System Software|SSW]] prior to 8.0, the floppy disk's icon would remain on the [[Desktop]] despite having been ejected. This stems from the days when Macs didn't ship with hard disks, and the just-ejected floppy's directory structure was held in RAM to speed up the disk reading process if said floppy were re-inserted.
 
|-
 
|-
 
|⌘F
 
|⌘F
 
|'''F'''ind...  
 
|'''F'''ind...  
 +
|
 +
|
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
|-
 
|⌘G
 
|⌘G
 
|Find A'''g'''ain.  
 
|Find A'''g'''ain.  
|Incidentally, there is no difference between this function and the previous '''⌘F'''. It is for this reason, perhaps, that '''Find Again''' hasn't been part of the Finder since [[Mac OS 8]].
+
|
 +
|8
 +
|Incidentally, there is no difference between this function and the previous ⌘F. It is for this reason, perhaps, that ''Find Again'' hasn't been part of the Finder since [[Mac OS 8]].
 +
|-
 +
|⌘H
 +
|Searc'''h''' Internet...
 +
|9.0
 +
|9.2.2
 +
|
 
|-
 
|-
 
|⌘H
 
|⌘H
|Search Internet...
+
|'''H'''ide application
|Introduced in Mac OS 9. As of Mac OS X, '''H'''ides the currently active application.
+
|10
 +
|
 +
|
 
|-
 
|-
 
|⌘I
 
|⌘I
 
|Get '''I'''nfo  
 
|Get '''I'''nfo  
 +
|
 +
|
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
|-
 
|⌘J
 
|⌘J
 
|View Options...  
 
|View Options...  
|Despite having been introduced in [[Mac OS 8]], this function only received a keyboard shortcut in OS 9. In Mac OS X, the shortcut remains the same, but the function has been renamed to '''Show View Options'''.
+
|9
 +
|
 +
|Despite having been introduced in [[Mac OS 8]], this function only received a keyboard shortcut in OS 9. In Mac OS X, the shortcut remains the same, but the function has been renamed to ''Show View Options''.
 +
|-
 +
|⌘L
 +
|Make A'''l'''ias
 +
|10
 +
|
 +
|Those with a UNIX background may think of this as '''''L'''ink'', though technically the two are different.
 
|-
 
|-
 
|⌘M
 
|⌘M
 
|'''M'''ake Alias  
 
|'''M'''ake Alias  
|As of Mac OS X, '''M'''inimises the window; '''⌘L''' makes an alias of an item in OS X.
+
|
 +
|9.2.2
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|⌘M
 +
|'''M'''inimize active window  
 +
|10
 +
|
 +
|
 
|-
 
|-
 
|⌘N
 
|⌘N
 
|'''N'''ew Folder  
 
|'''N'''ew Folder  
|As of Mac OS X, opens '''N'''ew Finder window.
+
|
 +
|9.2.2
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|⌘N
 +
|'''N'''ew Finder Window
 +
|10
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|⌘⇧N
 +
|'''N'''ew Folder
 +
|
 +
|10
 +
|
 
|-
 
|-
 
|⌘O
 
|⌘O
 
|'''O'''pen  
 
|'''O'''pen  
 +
|
 +
|
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
|-
 
|⌘P
 
|⌘P
 
|'''P'''rint  
 
|'''P'''rint  
|Although '''Print''' is still available in the Mac OS 10.5 Finder, it no longer has a keyboard shortcut assigned to it.  
+
|
 +
|
 +
|Although ''Print'' is still available in the Mac OS 10.5 Finder, it no longer has a keyboard shortcut assigned to it.  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|⌘Q
 
|⌘Q
 
|Log Out...  
 
|Log Out...  
|Introduced in Mac OS 9. As of Mac OS X, the keyboard shortcut has been changed to '''⌘⇧Q''' and the user's name now appears after '''Log Out'''.
+
|9
 +
|9.2.2
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|⌘⇧Q
 +
|Log Out ''User''
 +
|10
 +
|
 +
|
 
|-
 
|-
 
|⌘R
 
|⌘R
 
|Find O'''r'''iginal
 
|Find O'''r'''iginal
|Introduced in [[Mac OS 8]].
+
|[[Mac OS 8|8]]
 +
|
 +
|
 
|-
 
|-
 
||⌘T
 
||⌘T
 
|Add Item to Favouri'''t'''es Folder
 
|Add Item to Favouri'''t'''es Folder
 +
|9
 +
|
 
|Although this short-lived function was introduced in [[Mac OS 8]], it only received a keyboard shortcut in OS 9. As of OS X, adds an item to the sidebar.  
 
|Although this short-lived function was introduced in [[Mac OS 8]], it only received a keyboard shortcut in OS 9. As of OS X, adds an item to the sidebar.  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|⌘V
 
|⌘V
 
|Paste
 
|Paste
|As of Mac OS X, this command can be used to insert files and folders copied into RAM (see '''⌘C'''). But, just like the '''Copy''' function, it can also paste in the text from a file or folder's name (again, refer to '''⌘C''').
+
|
 +
|
 +
|As of Mac OS X, this command can be used to insert files and folders copied into RAM (see ⌘C). But, just like ''Copy'', it can also paste in the text from a file or folder's name (again, refer to ⌘C).
 
|-
 
|-
 
|⌘W
 
|⌘W
 
|Close '''W'''indow  
 
|Close '''W'''indow  
 +
|
 +
|
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
|-
 
|⌘X
 
|⌘X
 
|Cut
 
|Cut
 +
|
 +
|
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
|-
 
|⌘Y
 
|⌘Y
 
|Put Awa'''y'''  
 
|Put Awa'''y'''  
 +
|
 +
|
 
|In [[Mac OS|Systems]] before [[Mac OS 8]], this command was used to purge RAM of the floppy disk's directory structure when ejecting it. As of System 10.5 (Leopard), it opens the selected file(s) and/or folder(s) in Quick Look.
 
|In [[Mac OS|Systems]] before [[Mac OS 8]], this command was used to purge RAM of the floppy disk's directory structure when ejecting it. As of System 10.5 (Leopard), it opens the selected file(s) and/or folder(s) in Quick Look.
 
|-
 
|-
 
|⌘?
 
|⌘?
 
|Mac OS Guide  
 
|Mac OS Guide  
|Introduced in [[Mac OS 7.6]]. This menu item is unique in that there are '''''four''''' possible ways of invoking it and that it has had its name changed several times since its inception. In Mac OS 8, it was renamed to '''Mac OS Help''', whilst in OS 9 it was shortened to '''Mac Help'''. It is this name that has persevered into Mac OS X.
+
|[[System 7|7.6]]
In terms of keyboard shortcuts, the Help Viewer can be launched by holding down either: '''⌘?''' (which is effectively '''⌘/''', since the Shift key must be held down in order to produce a question mark); '''⌘⇧?''' (effectively, '''⌘⇧/'''); '''⌘/''' (numeric keypad); and — on keyboards containing the [[Home keys]], the key marked as '''help''' can be pressed.
+
|
 +
|This menu item is unique in that there are '''''four''''' possible ways of invoking it and that it has had its name changed several times since its inception. In [[Mac OS 8]], it was renamed to ''Mac OS Help'', whilst in OS 9 it was shortened to ''Mac Help''. It is this name that has persevered into Mac OS X.
 +
 
 +
In terms of keyboard shortcuts, the Help Viewer can be launched by holding down either: ⌘? (which is effectively ⌘/, since the Shift key must be held down in order to produce a question mark); ⌘⇧? (effectively, ⌘⇧/); ⌘∕ (numeric keypad); and on keyboards containing the [[Home keys]], the key marked as ''Help'' can be pressed.
 
|-
 
|-
 
|⌘⌫
 
|⌘⌫
 
|Move to Wastebasket/Trash  
 
|Move to Wastebasket/Trash  
|Introduced in [[Mac OS 8]].
+
|[[Mac OS 8|8]]
 +
|
 +
|
 
|-
 
|-
 
|⌘⇧⌫
 
|⌘⇧⌫
 
|Empty Trash...  
 
|Empty Trash...  
|Introduced in [[Mac OS 9]].
+
|[[Mac OS 9|9]]
|-
+
|
 
+
|
 
|}
 
|}
  
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|⌘S
 
|⌘S
 
|'''S'''ave
 
|'''S'''ave
|Standard in all versions of [[Macintosh System Software|System Software]].
+
|Standard in all versions of [[Macintosh System Software|System Software]]. Some applications do not support this common standard, however. Some mail programmes use ⌘S for '''S'''end mail, so be careful.
 
|}
 
|}
  

Latest revision as of 20:23, 27 June 2014

Caution icon color.pngThis articles uses characters from extended Unicode ranges that may not display correctly depending on your computer's configuration.

A list of keyboard shortcuts present in the Mac OS.

Special characters not on keyboards

All special characters can be typed using Option+key or Shift+Option+key. In some cases (like accents) the following character is modified rather than typing a character immediately.

In case you do find you need to use different special characters frequently, consider using the software PopChar (shareware, Pro/Light versions available). It provides a convenient menu to insert any character from the currently used font. It is also useful to memorise keyboard shortcuts. Alternatively, you can use Apple's Key Caps utility, found in all versions of SSW since System 7.

Key Combination Function Notes
⌥A å lower case a with ring
⇧⌥B ı lower case dotless i
⌥C ç lower case c with cedilla
⌥E ’ modifier Sharp accent over following character: áćéíĺńóŕśúýź
⇧⌥E Sharp accent alone
⌥G © Copyright
⌥H ˙ Overdot
⌥I ^ modifier Circumflex over following character: âĉêĝĥîĵôŝûŵŷ
⇧⌥I ^ Circumflex alone
⌥K ˚ Ring
⇧⌥K filled Apple symbol (only supported in Apple fonts, may not display properly here)
⌥N ~ modifier Tilde over following character: ãẽĩñõũỹ
⇧⌥N ~ Tilde alone
⌥O ø lower case o with slash
⌥Q œ oe ligature
⌥U ¨ modifier Umlaut over following character: äëïöüÿ
⇧⌥U ¨ Umlaut alone
⇧⌥1 Fraction slash
⌥3 £ or # UK sterling symbol (UK layout), number symbol (all other layouts)
⌥8 Bullet
⇧⌥8 ° Degree
⇧⌥9 · middle dot
⌥` ` modifier Grave accent over following character: àèìòù
⇧⌥` ` Grave accent alone
⌥- en dash
⇧⌥- em dash
⌥[ Open double quote
⇧⌥[ Close double quote
⌥] Open single quote
⇧⌥] Close single quote, or apostrophe
⌥. (That's Option-colon.) Ellipsis
⌥' æ ae ligature
⇧⌥, ¯ Macron
⇧⌥. ˇ Breve, caron (mnemonic: note similarity of ˇ to >, which is ⇧. on US keyboards)
(That's Option-space.) no break space

Commands in Finder

I case you miss some of the commands found in early versions of the Finder, consider using Finder Feature Enabler. This software reinstates some of the old Finder keyboard shortcuts.

Key Combination Function Introduced Removed Notes
⌘A Select All
⌘C Copy As of Mac OS X, Copy behaves in the same way as its Microsoft Windows cousin: it saves a copy of the file(s) and/or folder(s) in RAM. Having said that, copy still retains its old function and will copy the text of a file or folder if the file/folder's name is selected for editing.
⌘D Duplicate
⌘E Eject In versions of SSW prior to 8.0, the floppy disk's icon would remain on the Desktop despite having been ejected. This stems from the days when Macs didn't ship with hard disks, and the just-ejected floppy's directory structure was held in RAM to speed up the disk reading process if said floppy were re-inserted.
⌘F Find...
⌘G Find Again. 8 Incidentally, there is no difference between this function and the previous ⌘F. It is for this reason, perhaps, that Find Again hasn't been part of the Finder since Mac OS 8.
⌘H Search Internet... 9.0 9.2.2
⌘H Hide application 10
⌘I Get Info
⌘J View Options... 9 Despite having been introduced in Mac OS 8, this function only received a keyboard shortcut in OS 9. In Mac OS X, the shortcut remains the same, but the function has been renamed to Show View Options.
⌘L Make Alias 10 Those with a UNIX background may think of this as Link, though technically the two are different.
⌘M Make Alias 9.2.2
⌘M Minimize active window 10
⌘N New Folder 9.2.2
⌘N New Finder Window 10
⌘⇧N New Folder 10
⌘O Open
⌘P Print Although Print is still available in the Mac OS 10.5 Finder, it no longer has a keyboard shortcut assigned to it.
⌘Q Log Out... 9 9.2.2
⌘⇧Q Log Out User 10
⌘R Find Original 8
⌘T Add Item to Favourites Folder 9 Although this short-lived function was introduced in Mac OS 8, it only received a keyboard shortcut in OS 9. As of OS X, adds an item to the sidebar.
⌘V Paste As of Mac OS X, this command can be used to insert files and folders copied into RAM (see ⌘C). But, just like Copy, it can also paste in the text from a file or folder's name (again, refer to ⌘C).
⌘W Close Window
⌘X Cut
⌘Y Put Away In Systems before Mac OS 8, this command was used to purge RAM of the floppy disk's directory structure when ejecting it. As of System 10.5 (Leopard), it opens the selected file(s) and/or folder(s) in Quick Look.
⌘? Mac OS Guide 7.6 This menu item is unique in that there are four possible ways of invoking it and that it has had its name changed several times since its inception. In Mac OS 8, it was renamed to Mac OS Help, whilst in OS 9 it was shortened to Mac Help. It is this name that has persevered into Mac OS X.

In terms of keyboard shortcuts, the Help Viewer can be launched by holding down either: ⌘? (which is effectively ⌘/, since the Shift key must be held down in order to produce a question mark); ⌘⇧? (effectively, ⌘⇧/); ⌘∕ (numeric keypad); and — on keyboards containing the Home keys, the key marked as Help can be pressed.

⌘⌫ Move to Wastebasket/Trash 8
⌘⇧⌫ Empty Trash... 9

Commands common to applications

Key Combination Function Notes
⌘S Save Standard in all versions of System Software. Some applications do not support this common standard, however. Some mail programmes use ⌘S for Send mail, so be careful.


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